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An open-source platform maintained by Github itself, Atom is a community effort that shows the love and support a dedicated group of people can put into making free software top-tier.The subject which drew the companies that write research proposals attention of the trade unions is the wages and salaries of the workers.
This essays on copyright and fair use relates to the policy matter of the enterprise. However, differences may arise in the process of their implementation. In the case of unorganised sector, trade unions play a crucial role in bargaining the pay scales.
Trade unions aim to improve working conditions by securing shorter working hours, better leave facilities, adequate social security, better housing and education and other welfare benefits. If such decisions are governed by statutory rules and rational essay on village fair in bangladesh, there is greater assurance of fair treatment and equal justice; otherwise there is no security for workers.
A trade union should also strive for harmonious relations between the employees and employer. Trade union, being essays on vanity fair representative of all the workers, essay on fair carry out continuous negotiations with the management with a view to promote industrial peace. Another objective that unions seek to achieve is winning recognition for workers that they are equal partners with management in the task of production.
The unions try to secure for workers a say in the management and industrial democracy thereby bringing about a new social order. To provide legal sanctions to its demands, the unions attempt to get these framed in the form of Acts so that they become permanent features of the contract between the employers and the workers.
For this purpose, the unions may take recourse to political action in terms of supporting some political party or forming their own political party. Modern trade unions also engage in providing educational, medical and other facilities for the development and welfare of their members, if they have sufficient funds at their disposal.
The strength of trade unions is their unity. The unity among members will enable the union to have a good bargaining power. If the members stay divided then employers or others to whom unions put their demands will not take them seriously.
So the unity in the association will be its strength. They oppose discrimination among workers and demand same wages for similar work. The managements may indulge in paying different wages to create divisions among employees.
The ILO charter also suggests that men and women should receive equal remuneration for work of equal value. The security of service of employees is the other principle of trade unions. The continuity of service will ensure social and economic security for union members. The trade union movement is gaining momentum with the passage of time. Workers and others are joining unions to protect and further their interests. Why do Workers Join Unions? The working classes are increasingly depending upon them to take up its issues with managements.
The workers join unions to get economic security.
Fair TradeEssay Sample
They want steady employment and proper income. The unions take up the issue of layoffs or wage increases for workers with managements and protect the interest of their members. The unions protect workers and refrain management from taking any action which is irrational, discriminatory or prejudicial to the interest of labour.
The workers want a proper policy for giving rewards, punishment, layoffs, transfers, promotions, etc. The unions are the voice of workers in communicating their views, aims, feelings and frustrations to management.
The unions provide protection to workers against economic hazards such as accident, illness, death, disability, etc. These functions are termed as militant functions too because unions may resort to strikes and other pressure tactics to get their demands implemented. Intramural functions good essay writing company wage rises, proper working conditions, sanitation, safety, continuity in employment and so on.
The unions try to resolve these issues through collective bargaining. If discussions and meetings do not help in resolving these issues then unions use strike and other pressures as tools in getting these demands accepted. Trade unions also undertake functions which are required for the welfare of their members. These functions include provision of educational, recreational and housing facilities. The unions raise funds in the form of subscription from members and spend them for the welfare of workers.
Extramural functions are very important as they inculcate the spirit of co-operation against members. The trade unions indulge in political activities in order to help in improving the economic conditions of workers through legislative and administrative measures. The unions hold political meetings to put pressure on the government to bring new legislations which will improve the plight of working class.
The unions may also collect funds for political functions. These functions include carrying out social service activities, discharging social responsibilities through various sections of the society like educating the customers. Organising drive is one of the major instruments of force that unions employ.
Organising drive is nothing but forming essay on baisakhi fair union where none exists. The mere threat of a union may bring the management to terms. Similarly, a successful drive may also bring the management to terms. The organiser tries to capitalise on employee dissatisfaction and remises workers that their dissatisfaction would be removed if they join the union. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements FLO, These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid.
And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price FLO, b.
At the end of there were producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and - together with their families - over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from it Max Havelaar, This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. The growth of Fair Trade sales since is illustrated in table 1. The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is partly substantial.
In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 essay on village fair in bangladesh Max Havelaar, 22; Krier, The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Essays on fair trade movement USA, c. The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.
Table 2 essay on baisakhi fair how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade.
Fair Trade products are available at 79, points of sale in Europe, including In Europe more thanvolunteers are involved in the 2. In the U. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35, retail outlets in the U. There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.
Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Since for example the climate in Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade.
In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade among other things has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity McMichael, But global inequality has grown simultaneously - so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all.
Beyond these extremes, the 2. There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North.
The price index of commodities for example declined by 47 percent between andand the present the real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a year low Vorley, The squeezing of prices which are paid on average days after delivery; Brown, 10 and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market Reardon et al.
Both the commodity crisis essay on village fair in bangladesh falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector Lang, According to a study of the International Coffee Organization Osorio, the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee.
Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth Ponte, Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty Gibbons, Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime.
These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium.
But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free essay on baisakhi fair.
Before I will criticize essays on copyright and fair use two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South. It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries.
Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U. On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants.
The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions.
But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade.
The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities.
This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has - that it influences free market and free trade in general - is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in homework games for girls Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade.
Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective.
Essay on baisakhi fair
These studies, most of law essay sample are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers.
Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. I will first analyze the benefits from the price premium and other directly financial essay on baisakhi fair, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers.
Fair Trade producers receive essay honoring veterans their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and an additional social premium. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid.
On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations.
In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market Ronchi, In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices incompared with the conventional market, ranged from percent to percent for Fair Trade, and from percent to percent for organic Fair Trade Dankers, Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, essay on baisakhi fair as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions Lyon, ; Mendez, ; Dankers, The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region Dankers, 57, And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating essays on fair trade movement Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market Mendez, As Raynolds b: 14 correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers.
Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee VanderHoff Boersma, In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that.
The provision essays on fair trade movement credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive Taylor, A problem that has been reported however is that - contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs - the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers Lyon, In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market Mendez, The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market.
Essay on village fair in bangladesh
The supply by far outstretches the demand. How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers Bacon, Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects.
In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. And Lewis points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of increased migration patterns.
The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences.
But all studies point out that the biggest problem for producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers Murray et al, 5.
Essays on vanity fair several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children Lyon, 9; Ronchi, 8; Murray et al, 9 and the preservation of indigenous cultures Murray et al, 4; Lyon, An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias.
Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the income Mayoux, Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard Taylor, 4. And as Mayoux has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium.
It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively.
Milford has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments Milford, Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives.
Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade.
All these aspects have helped essay on baisakhi fair producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade Taylor, 10, The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities.
In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. In the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported Comercio Justo, These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al argue, together with similar attempts in the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways.
Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade - one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account - are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the hotmath algebra 2. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil office for births, marriages, and deathsland tenancy questions, and religious festivals.
And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture Lyon, Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers.
Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even mexican american war essay sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in essays on vanity fair new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. Since deforestation has caused habitat damage and become a major threat to birds, consumer demand for organic and shade grown coffee has increased.
The environmental benefit of sourcing free trade coffee is worth noting. Organic and shade grown coffee refrains from the use of toxic pesticides as well as chemical fertilizers, which protects the ecosystem. Ultimately, the environment is improved by the sales of fair trade coffee; not only are farmers producing a better, healthier product for consumers, they are also preserving the environment. Through the use of fair trade coffee, Starbucks will be a leader in essays on fair trade movement.
Thank you for the time and opportunity to assist you with your needs. Should you have any queries or require additional information, please contact me and I will do my very best to find the right solution for you. Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?
Fair trade business helps essays on copyright and fair use farmers from being ripped off but it the comment made by the institute Adam smith does not understand the difference between floor prices; the starting point is for a market negotiation between the growers and the buyers China and India have successful growers who did not use the method of fair trade; it claims to be that they have adopted the way of Free Trade, which removes all the trade barriers around the world.
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